Podcast

Episode: 149 |
Will Bachman:
U.S. Constitution:
Episode
149

HOW TO THRIVE AS AN
INDEPENDENT PROFESSIONAL

Will Bachman

U.S. Constitution

Show Notes

March 4, 2019 was the 230th anniversary of the day that the United States started operating under the U.S. Constitution.

Which seemed like a good occasion to do a reading, out loud, of the full text of the Constitution and the 27 Amendments, something I had never done before.

One weekly email with bonus materials and summaries of each new episode:

Will Bachman 00:01
Hey, welcome to Unleashed. I’m your host Will Bachman. So what is the birthday of the federal government of the United States? July 4 is the day we normally think about Independence Day Day the Declaration of Independence was signed. But for the actual currently operating federal government, there’s a few different birthdays, we could select, we could say June 21, because on June 21 1788, the Constitution had been ratified by nine states, which was the minimum required to make it operational. We could pick seven September 13. Because on September 13 1788, the Continental Congress passed the resolution to put the constitution into operation, we could pick April 30, which was the date that George Washington was inaugurated as the nation’s first president. Or we could pick may 29, because on May 29 1790, Rhode Island, bringing up the rear was the last state to ratify the Constitution. But let’s pick, or at least I will, today pick March 4, because on March 4 1789, the federal government officially began operations under the Constitution. And since we just passed March 4 2019, it’s the 200 and 30th anniversary of operating under the Constitution. And to celebrate, if you will, or to commemorate that I thought I would read the full text of the Constitution. So this is a little bit of an unusual episode for Unleashed not what we normally do here. But I suppose for a variety of reasons, it seemed like a good time to read the whole thing out loud. And if you haven’t listened to it recently, you can you can listen in. Now I’m going to read rereading a version of it, not from an official government body, but from a website that was started up by entrepreneur in 1995, called US Constitution dotnet. And it has some, some sort of side notes in there, which I will read, and it kind of has a little side notes when it mentions that some sentence was been modified by an amendment so I’ll read those and I’ll say note before before the notes, so you know that their notes, okay, so here we go. Other than those, I’m not going to give any other color commentary, but just do a straight read through. It’s been a pretty long time since I read the whole constitution from start to finish. So here it goes. The Constitution of the United States preamble, we the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Article One, the legislative branch, section one, the legislature, all legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Section two, the house, the house of representatives, shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature. no person shall be a representative, who shall not have attained the age of 25 years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this union according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to a service for a term of yours, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons. And then note, the previous sentence in parentheses was modified by the 14th amendment section to the actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of 10 years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every 30,000 but each state shall have at least one representative. And until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three Massachusetts a Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey for Pennsylvania, eight, Delaware one, Maryland, six, Virginia 10, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia three. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. Section three, the Senate, the Senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof. Note the proceeding words and parentheses superseded by the 17th amendment section one for six years and each senator shall have one vote. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as maybe into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that 1/3 may be chosen every second year. And if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. Note the preceding words and parentheses, were superseded by the 17th amendment section two. no person shall be a senator, who shall not have attained to the age of 30 years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided. The Senate shall choose their other officers and also a president pro temporary, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of the President of the United States. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present. judgment in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States. But the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law. Section four elections, meetings. The Times, places and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof. But the Congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the place of choosing senators. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December. The proceeding note, the preceding words in parentheses were superseded by the 20th amendment section two, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. Section five, membership rules, journals, adjournment, each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business. But a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of Absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two thirds expel a member. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings and from time to time publish the same, accepting such parts, as May, in their judgment require secrecy and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of 1/5 of those present, be entered on the journal. Neither house during the session of Congress shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. Section six compensation. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services to be asserted by law and paid out of the treasury of the United States. Note, the proceeding words in parentheses were modified by the 27th amendment. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same. And for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which will have been created, or the emoluments were of shall have been increased during such time, and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office. Section seven, revenue bills, legislative process, presidential veto, All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives. But the senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. Every bill which shall have been passed the House of Representatives and the Senate shall, before it becomes a law be presented to the President of the United States. If he approves, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it with his objections to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after reconsideration two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent together with their object with the objections to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the Journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within 10 days, Sundays accepted, after it shall have been presented to him. The same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. Every order, resolution or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary, except on a question of adjournment shall be presented to the President of the United States, and before the same Shall take effect shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives. According to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill. section eight powers of Congress. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States. But all duties imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States. To borrow money on the credit of the United States, to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States and with the Indian tribes, to establish and uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States to coin money, regulate the value thereof of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures to provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States to establish post offices and post roads to promote the progress of Science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries to constitute tribunal’s inferior to the Supreme Court to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations, to declare war, Grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water, to raise and support armies. But no, no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years to provide and maintain a Navy to make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces, to provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions to provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them, as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers and the authority of trading the militia, according to the discipline prescribed by Congress, to exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district not exceeding 10 miles square, as May, by session of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress become the seat of the government of the United States and to exercise like authority over all places, purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state, in which the same shall be for the erection of forts, magazines, Arsenal’s dockyards and other needful buildings, and to make all laws, which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution, the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof. Section nine limits on Congress. The migration or importation of such persons, as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year 1808. But a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding $10 for each person. the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. section in parentheses clarified by the 16th amendment. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another, nor shall vessels bound to or from one state, be obliged to inter clear or pay duties in another. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law, an irregular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States and no person holding any office or profit, Office of, of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, except of any present emolument office or title of any kind, whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign state. Section 10. Powers prohibited of states. No state shall enter into any treaty, Alliance or Confederation. Grant letters of marque and reprisal coin money emit bills of credit make any thing But gold and silver coin, a tender and payment of debts pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts or grant any title of nobility. No state shall, without the consent of the Congress lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws. And the net produce of all duties and in posts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States. And all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war, in time of peace, enter any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded or in such imminent danger, as will not admit of delay. Article to the executive branch, section one, the president the executive power shall be invest shall be vested in a president of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and together with the vice president chosen for the same term, be elected as follows. Each state shall appoint in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct a number of electors equal to the whole number of senators and representatives, to which the state may be entitled in the Congress. But no senator or representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. This big long part coming up is all superseded. So. open parentheses, the electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for two persons of whom one at least shall not lie and inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for and of the number of voters for each, each, which lists they shall sign and certify and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed by the President of the Senate, the President of the Senate shall in the presence of the Senate, and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if there’ll be more than one who have such majority and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President. And if no person has a majority, then from the five highest on the list that said house shall like man or choose the president, but in choosing the president, the voters shall be taken. Votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote, a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person of greatest number of votes of the electors Selby, the Vice President, but if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot, the Vice President. This clause was in parentheses was superseded by the 12th amendment. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United States. No person except a natural born citizen, or citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be eligible to the office of president, neither shall any person be eligible to that office, who shall not ever attain to the age of 35 years, and been 14 years a resident within the United States. open parentheses. In case of the removal of the president from office or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the president and vice president declaring what officer shall then act as president and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be removed, or a president shall be elected. Close parentheses. Note, this clause in parentheses has been modified by the 20th and 25th amendments. The President shall at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation. I do solemnly swear or affirm, that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. Section two civilians power over military cabinet pardon power appointments. The President shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the United States. He may require the opinion in writing of the principal officer in each of the executive departments upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. He shall have power by and with the advice and consent of the Senate to make treaties, provided two thirds of the senators present concur. And he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls. judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not hearing otherwise provided for and which shall be established by law. But the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. President shall have power to fill up vacancies that may happen during the recess of the senate by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next session. Section three, State of the Union convening Congress, he shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of a German, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper, he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States section for disqualification. The President, Vice President and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from office on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. article three, the judicial branch, section one judicial powers, the judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts, as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish the judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall at stated times, received for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. Section two, trial by jury, original jurisdiction, jury trials, open parentheses. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States and treaties made or which shall be made, under their authority to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls to all cases of Admiralty and maritime jurisdiction to controversies to which the United States shall be a party to controversies between two or more states. We Between new state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state or the citizens are of and foreign states citizens or subjects, close parentheses. Note, this section in parentheses is modified by the 11th amendment. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which is state shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. And all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed. But were not committed with any state. The trial shall be at such place or places, as the Congress may by law have directed. Section three, treason. treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. no person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses, to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason. But no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted. article for the state’s section one, each state to honor all others. full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved. And the effect there of section two states citizens extradition. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States. A person charged in any state with treason, felony or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state shall on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up to be removed to the state having jurisdiction for the crime, open parentheses, no person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another shall, in consequence of any law or regulation there in be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due close parentheses. Note, this clause in parentheses is superseded by the 13th amendment. Section three new states, new states may be admitted by the Congress into this union. But no new states shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state, nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states or parts of states. without the consent of the legislature’s of the states concerned, as well as of the Congress. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory, or other property belonging to the United States. And nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state. Section four, republican government, the United States shall guarantee to every state in this union, a Republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion and on application of the legislature, or of the executive when the legislature cannot be convened against domestic violence. Article five amendment the Congress whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution or on the application of the legislature. As of two thirds of the several States shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which in either case shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislature’s of three fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress provided that no Amendment, which may be made prior to the year 1808 Jalan any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article, and that no state without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. Article six deaths, supremacy, oaths, all debts contracted, and engagements entered into before the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this constitution, as under the Confederation this Constitution and the laws of the United States, which shall be made in pursuance thereof and all treaties made, or which shall be made under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land, and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any state. To the contrary, notwithstanding the senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution. But no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States. Article seven, ratification, the ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between states so ratifying the same done and convention by the unanimous consent of the states present the 17th day of September in the year of our Lord 1787. And of the opinion independence of the United States of America, the 12th, the 12th in witness whereof we have here on to subscribed our names George Washington, President and Deputy from Virginia, New Hampshire, john laindon, Nicholas Gilman, Massachusetts Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King, Connecticut, William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman, New York, Alexander Hamilton, New Jersey, will Livingston David rarely, William Paterson Jonah Dayton, Pennsylvania, B. Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George climber, Thomas Fitzsimmons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Governor Morris, Delaware, George Reed, gunning Bedford, john Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broome, Maryland, James McHenry, Dan of St. Thomas, Jennifer, Daniel Carroll, Virginia john Blair, James Madison, Jr, North Carolina, William Blount, Richard Dobbs Speight, Hugh Williamson, South Carolina J. Rutledge, Charles cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler, Georgia, William few, Abraham Baldwin, a testing William Jackson secretary. Now for the amendments. The amendments The following are the amendments to the Constitution. The first 10 amendments collectively are commonly known as the Bill of Rights. amendment one, freedom of religion, press expression, ratified December 15 1791. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. amendment to right to bear arms ratified December 15 1791. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. amendment three quartering of soldiers and ratified December 15 1791. No soldiers shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. amendment for search and seizure ratified December 15 1791. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. amendment five, trial and punishment compensation for takings ratified December 15 1791. no person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentation presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when an actual service and time of war or public danger. nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation. amendment six, right to speedy trial, confrontation of witnesses ratified December 15 1791. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the state and district, wherein the crimes shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously asserted by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation to be confronted with the witnesses against him to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. amendment seven, trial by jury in civil cases ratified December 15 1791. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed $20, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re examined in any Court of the United States. Then according to the rules of the common law, amendment eight cruel and unusual punishment ratified December 15 1791. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflected amendment nine construction of constitution ratified December 15 1791. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. amendment 10 powers of the states and people ratified December 15 1791. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. amendment 11 judicial limits ratified February 7 1795. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state. amendment 12 choosing the president vice president ratified June 15 1804. The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for president and vice president, one of whom at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. They shall name in their ballots the person voted for as president and indistinct ballots the person voted for as Vice President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for As a vice president, and of the number of votes for each, which lists shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate, the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes for president shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have such a majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for US president, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately by ballot the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representative representation from each state having one vote, a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a president, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March, next, following then the vice president shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as vice president shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President, a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice, but no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the United States. amendment 13. Slavery abolished, ratified December 618 65. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. amendment 14, citizen your ship rights, ratified July 9 1868. One all persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law, which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction, the equal protection of the laws to representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being 21 years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 21 years of age in such state. Number three, no person shall be a senator or representative in Congress, or elector of pret or president of President or vice president or hold any office, civil or military under the United States or under any state who, having previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial Officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same or given aid or comfort to the Enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two thirds of each house, remove such disability. For the validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties, for surfaces and suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave. But all such debts, obligation and claims shall be held illegal and void. Five, the Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article, amendment 15 race no bar to vote, ratified February 3 1870. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude to the Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. amendment 16 status of income tax certified, clarified ratified February 3 1913. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes from whatever source derived without apportionment among the several States and without regard to any census or enumeration. amendment 17. Senators elected by popular vote, ratified April 8 1913. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, elected by the people there have for six years, and each senator shall have one vote. The electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislatures. When vacancies happen in the representation of any state in the Senate, the executive authority of such state shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies, provided that the legislature of any state may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. This amendment shall not be so construed as to effect the election or term of any senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. amendment 18 liquor abolished ratified on January 16 1919, appealed by amendment 21. On December 5 1933. One after one year from the ratification of this article, the manufacture sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors within the importation thereof into or the exportation there of from the United States, and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof, for beverage purposes, is hereby prohibited to the Congress and the several States shall have the concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Three, this article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution, by the legislature’s of the several States as provided by in the constitution within seven years from the date of the submission here up to the States by the Congress. amendment 19. Women’s Suffrage ratified August 18 1920. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. amendment 20 presidential congressional terms ratified January 23 1933. The terms of the president and vice president shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of senators and representatives at noon on the third day of January of the years in which such terms would have ended, if this article had not been ratified, and the terms of the successors shall then begin. The Congress shall assemble At least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the third day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. Three, if at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President Elect shall have died, the Vice President Elect shall become president. If a president shall not have been chosen, before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the president elect shall have failed to qualify, then the president than the vice president elect shall act as president until a president shall have qualified, and that Congress may by law provide for the case when neither a president elect nor a vice president elect shall have qualified, declaring, who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a president or vice president shall have qualified for the Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a president, whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the senate may choose a vice president, whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. five sections one and two, shall take effect on the 15th day of October, following the ratification of this article. Six. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution, by the legislature’s of three fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission. amendment 21. amendment 18 repealed ratified December 5 1933. One, the 18th article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed to the transportation or importation into any state, territory or possession of the United States for delivery or use there in of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited. Three, the article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States as provided by the in the constitution within seven years from the date of the submission heroes to the States by the Congress. amendment 22 presidential term limits ratified February 27 1951. One, no person shall be elected to the office of the president more than twice, and no person who has held the Office of the President or acted as president for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected president shall be elected to the office of the president more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the Office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of president or acting as President. During the term within which this article becomes operative, from holding the office of president or acting as president during the remainder of such term. To this article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislature’s of three fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress. amendment 23. presidential vote for district of columbia ratified March 29th 1961. One, the district constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct a number of electors of president and vice president equal to the whole number of senators and representatives in Congress, to which the district would be entitled, if it were a state, but in no event, more than the least populous state, they shall be in addition to those appointed by the states, but they shall be considered for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President to be electors appointed by a state, and they shall meet in the district and perform such duties as provided by the 12th article of amendment to the Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. amendment 24 poll tax barred, ratified January 23 1964, won the right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for president or vice president, for electors for president or vice president, or for senator or representative in Congress shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason or failure to pay any poll tax or other tax to the Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. amendment 25 presidential disability and succession ratified February 10 1967. One in case of the removal of the president from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become president to whenever there is a vacancy in the Office of the Vice President, the president shall nominate a vice president, who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both houses of Congress. Three, whenever the president transmits to the to the President pro tempore of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, has written declaration that is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. And until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the vice president as acting president. For whenever the Vice President, and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments, or of such other body, as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office of acting president. Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate, and that Speaker of the House of Representatives is written declared declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress made by law provide transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office there upon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within 48 hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress within 21 days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or if Congress is not in session within 21 days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two thirds vote of both houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as acting president. Otherwise, the president shall resume the powers and duties of his office. amendment 26 voting age set to 18 years, ratified July 1 1971. The right of citizens of the United States who are 18 years of age or older to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state on account of age to the Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. amendment 27 limiting congressional pay increases, ratified may 7 1992. no law, varying the compensation for the services of the senators and representatives Shall take effect until an election of representatives shall have intervened. And that is the US Constitution and all 27 amendments. Thanks for listening. You can ask questions of me and you can sign up for the weekly Unleashed email ad umbrex.com slash Unleashed or easier, just go to ask unleashed.com Thanks for listening

Related Episodes

jay-altizer-bain-alum-dallas-tx

Episode
440

Food Industry 101

Jay Altizer

Episode
439

Craig Beal on the Travel Business

Craig Beal

Episode
438

Rob Ristagno on Customer Segmentation

Rob Ristagno

Episode
437

Equity Research

Neeraj Monga